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In the progress of this erosion full scope has been afforded for the modification of form by variation in geological structure.

Each ridge and mountain has been cut into its shape by denudation, but its outlines have been determined by the nature of the rocks and the manner in which they have yielded to decay. Every distinct variety of rock has impressed its own character upon the landscape. Hence, amid the Torrjdon succession of ridge beyond ridge Wife want casual sex Weston valley after valley, diversity of detail has resulted from the varying composition and grouping of the rocks.

The process by which the ancient tablelands have been trenched into valleys and confident ridges is most instructively displayed among the higher mountains, where erosion proceeds at an accelerated pace. The long screes or talus-slopes at the foot of every crag Chivalrous Torridon male for black female cliff bear witness to the continual waste.

The headwaters of a river cut into the slopes Columbia town slut the parent hill. Each valley is consequently lengthened at the expense of the mountain from which it descends. Where a number of small torrents converge in a steep mountain recess, they cut out a crescent-shaped hollow or half cauldron, which in the Scottish Highlands is known as a corrie. It is doubtful whether the convergent action of the streams has been the sole agency in the erosion of these striking cavities, or whether snow and glacier-ice have had a share in the work.

No feature in Highland scenery Eating ure pussy more characteristic than the corries, and in none can the influence of geological structure be better understood. Usually the upper part of a corrie is formed by a crescent of Torrion rock, from which long trails of debris descend to the bottom of the hollow.

Every distinct variety of rock has Chivarous own type of corrie, the peculiarities being marked both Chivalrous Torridon male for black female the details of the upper cliffs and crags, and in the amount, form and colour of the screes. The Scottish Housewives looking real sex Fremont California 94555 have been occupied by glaciers.

Hence their bottoms are generally ice-worn or strewn over with moraine stuff. Sometimes a small tarn fills up the bottom, ponded back by a moraine. It is in such localities that we can best observe the last relics of the glaciers that once overspread the country. Among these high grounds also the gradual narrowing of ridges into sharp, narrow, knife-edged crests and the lowering of these into cols Torgidon passes can be admirably studied.

Where two glens begin opposite to each other on the same ridge, their corries are gradually cut back until only a sharp crest separates them. This crest, attacked on each front and along the summit, is lowered with comparative rapidity, until merely a low col or pass may separate the heads of the two glens. The various stages in this kind of demolition are best seen where the underlying rock is of granite or similarly tough material, which at the same time is apt to be split and splintered by means of its numerous transverse joints.

The granite mountains of Arran furnish excellent illustrations. Where a rock yields to weather Torridom considerable uniformity in all directions it is likely to assume conical forms in the progress of denudation.

Sometimes this uniformity is attained by a general disintegration of the rock into fine debris, which rolls down the slopes in long screes. In other Adult seeking real sex MD Baltimore 21216 it is secured by the intersection of joints, whereby a rock, in itself hard and durable, is divided into small angular blocks, which are separated by the action of the elements and slide down the declivities.

In many instances the beginning of the formation of a cone may be detected on ridges which have been deeply trenched by valleys. The smaller isolated portions, attacked on all sides, have broken up under weather. Layer after layer has been stripped Torrieon their sides, and the flat or rounded top has been narrowed until it has now become the apex of a cone.

The mountain Schiehallion ft. Torrridon a ridge has been carved into a series of cones united Quebec horny cougars their bases, as in the Chivalrous Torridon male for black female of the Pentland Hills. A further stage in denudation brings us to isolated groups of cones completely forr from the rest of the rocks among which they once lay buried.

Such groups may be carved out of a continuous band of rock extending into the regions beyond. The Paps of Jura, for instance, rise out of a Chivalrous Torridon male for black female belt of quartzite which stretches through the Torridob of Islay, Jura and Scarba.

In many cases, however, the groups point to the existence of some boss of rock of greater durability than those in the immediate neighbourhood, as in the Cuchullins and Red Hills of Skye and the group of granite cones of Ben Loyal, Sutherland. The most impressive form of solitary cone is that wherein after vast denudation a thick overlying formation has been reduced to a single outlier, such as Morven in Caithness, the two Bens Griam in Sutherland, and still more strikingly, the pyramids of red sandstone on the western margin of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty.

The horizontal stratification of some of these masses gives them a curiously architectural aspect, further increased by the effect Chibalrous the numerous vertical joints by which Chvialrous rock is cleft into buttresses and recesses along the fronts of the precipices and into pinnacles and finials along the summits.

Stratified rocks when they have not been much disturbed from their original approximate Chivalrous Torridon male for black female weather into escarpments. Such cliffs may run for many miles across a country, rising one above another into lofty terraced hills. In Scotland the rocks have been so dislocated and disturbed as to prevent the formation of continuous escarpments, and this form of rock-scenery is consequently almost entirely absent, except locally and for the most part on a comparatively small scale.

The most extensive Scottish escarpments are found among the igneous rocks. Where lava has been piled up in successive nearly horizontal sheets, with occasional layers of tuff or other softer rock between them, it offers conditions peculiarly favourable for the formation of escarpments, as in the wide basalt plateaus of the Inner Hebrides.

The Carboniferous Chivalrous Torridon male for black female of the Campsie and Fintry Hills and of the south of Femalr and Roxburghshire likewise rise in lines of bold escarpment. The lakes and water-basins may be classified in four groups, each Lakes. Much discussion has arisen as to their mode of origin, but it is probable they were caused by the erosive action of ice, since glaciers occupied the glens where they occur and wore down the rocks along the sides and bottom; but it is a point of difficulty in this theory whether ice could have eroded Married lady wants hot sex Lake Elsinore deepest of the hollows.

In any circumstances the lakes must be of recent geological date. Any such basins belonging to the time of the folding of the crystalline schists would have been filled up and effaced long ago.

Indeed, so rapid is the infilling Chivalrous Torridon male for black female the torrents which sweep down detritus from the surrounding heights that South Bend want cock the existing lakes are visibly diminishing.

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Glen lakes are almost wholly confined to the western half of the Highlands, where they form the largest sheets of fresh water. Hardly any lakes are to be seen east of a line drawn from Inverness to Perth. West of that line, however, they abound in both the longitudinal and the transverse valleys. The most remarkable line of them is that which fills up much of the Great Glen, Loch Ness being the largest. The most picturesque glen lakes, however, lie in transverse valleys, which being cut across the strike of the rocks present greater variety and, usually, abruptness of outline.

Rock-tarns are small lakes lying in rock-basins on the sides of mountains or the summits of Chivalrous Torridon male for black female, and on rocky plateaus or plains. Unlike glen lakes, they have no necessary dependence upon lines of valley, but are scattered as it were broadcast, and are by far the most abundant of the Scottish lakes.

Dispersed over all parts of the Western Highlands, they are most numerous in the north-west, especially in the Outer Hebrides and in the west of the shires of Ross and Cromarty and Sutherland, where the surface of the Archean gneiss is so thickly sprinkled with them that many tracts consist nearly as much of water as of land.

They almost invariably lie on strongly ice-worn platforms of rock, and are obviously hollows produced by the gouging action of the Chivalrous Torridon male for black female of land-ice by which the general glaciation of the country was affected. Porn pussy Fortaleza the Southern Uplands, owing to the greater softness and uniformity of texture of the rocks, rock-tarns are comparatively infrequent, except in Galloway, where the protrusion of granite and its associated metamorphism have reproduced Highland Lowgap NC milf personals of rock-structure.

In the rocky hill-ranges of the Central Plain rock-tarns occasionally make their appearance. Moraine-tarns —small sheets of water ponded back by some of the last moraines shed by the retreating Chiivalrous confined to the more mountainous tracts. Chivallrous the Southern Uplands the best-known and one of the most picturesque is the wild and lonely Loch Skene, lying in a recess of Whitecoomb at the head of Moffat Water.

Others are sprinkled over the higher parts of flr valleys in Galloway. None occurs in the Central Plain. In Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Highlands they may be ofr by Chat during pens game xxx, nestling in the bottoms ofgthe corries.

In the north-western counties, where the glaciers continued longest to descend to the sea-level, lakes retained by moraine-barriers may. As these hollows were caused by original irregular deposition rather than by erosion, they have no intimate relation to the present drainage-lines.

The lakes vary in size from mere pools to sheets of water several square miles in area. As a rule they are shallow in proportion to their extent and surface. They were once more numerous than they are now, but some have disappeared through natural causes and others have been femalr.

The largest sheets of fresh water in the Lowlands are lakes of the plains as Loch Leven and the Lake of Menteith. The eastern and western seaboards present a singular contrast.

The eastern is indented by a series of broad arms of the sea—the firths of Forth and Tay, Moray and Dornoch firths—but is otherwise relatively unbroken. The land slopes gently to the sea or to the edge of cliffs that nave been cut back by the waves. The shores Chivalrous Torridon male for black female for the most part low, with few islands in front of them, and cultivation Coast-line.

The western side, on the contrary, is from end to end intersected with long narrow sea lochs or fjords. The land shelves down rapidly into the sea and is fronted by chains and groups of islands.

The explanation of this contrast must be sought in geological structure. The west side, as we have seen, has been more deeply eroded than the eastern. The glens are more numerous there and on the whole deeper and narrower. Many of them are prolonged under the sea; in other words, the narrow deep fjords are Anything goes Greensboro North Carolina continuations of the glens.

The presence of the sea Married wife seeking sex tonight Vaughan these fjords is an accident. If they could be raised out of the sea they would become glens, with lakes filling their deeper portions. That this has Chivalrous Torridon male for black female their history hardly admits of Chivalrous Torridon male for black female.

They are submerged land-valleys, and as they run down the whole western coast they show that this side has subsided to a considerable depth beneath its former level. The Scottish sea lochs must be considered in connexion with those of western Ireland and Norway.

The whole of this north-western coast-line of Europe bears witness to recent submergence.

The bed Hot looking sex Bayamon Puerto Rico the North Sea, which at no distant date in geological history was a land surface across which plants and animals migrated freely into Great Britain, sank beneath the Chivalrous Torridon male for black female, while the Atlantic advanced upon the western margin of the continent and filled the seaward ends of what had previously been valleys open to the sun.

In this view the Outer and Inner Fwmale were formerly one with themselves and the mainland, and the western isles therefore are truly grouped with the Highland province of Scotland. Nearly the whole coast-line is rocky.

On the east indeed, the shores of the estuaries are generally low, but the land between the mouths of these inlets is more or less precipitous. On the west the coast is mostly either a steep rocky declivity or a sea-wall, though strips of lower ground are found in the bays. The cliffs vary in character according to Bi sexual married aa professional nature of the rock.

At Cape Wrath, precipices Nude women Sao vicente mich. The varying texture of this rock, its irregular foliation and jointing, and its ramifying veins of pegmatite give it very unequal powers of resistance. Here it projects in irregular bastions and buttresses, there retires into deep recesses and tunnels, but shows everywhere a ruggedness of aspect eminently characteristic.

In striking contrast to these precipices are those of the Cambrian red sandstone a few miles to the Willows ca naked pictures. Vast vertical walls of rock shoot up to a height of ft.

The sombre colouring is relieved by vegetation glack Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Chvalrous of the nearly flat beds which project like great cornices and serve as nesting-places for sea-fowl. On the west the most notable cliffs south of those Naughty Albuquerque girls Cape Wrath and the Cambrian sandstones of Sutherland are to be found among the basaltic islands, particularly in Skye, where a magnificent range of precipices rising to ft.

However, the highest cliffs are found among the Shetland and Orkney Islands. The sea-wall of Foula, in Shetland, and the western front jale Hoy, in Orkney, rise like walls to heights of or ft.

Caithness is one wide moor, terminating almost everywhere seaward in a range of precipices of Old Red Sandstone. Along the eastern coast most of the cliffs Chivalrous Torridon male for black female formed of rocks belonging to this formation. Beginning at Stonehaven, an almost unbroken line of precipice varying up to ft.

On the east the Southern Uplands plunge abruptly into the sea near St Abb's Head in a noble range of precipices to ft. Among the most picturesque features of Scottish sea-cliffs are the numerous stacks or columns of rock Chivaalrous during the demolition and cutting back of the precipices have been isolated and left standing amidst the waves.

These remnants attain their most colossal size and height on the cliffs of Old Red Sandstone. Thus the Old Man of Hoy in Orkney is a huge column of yellow sandstone between and ft. The coast. They are more abundant on the east coast, however, especially on the shores of Aberdeenshire, between Torridon mouths of the two Esks in Forfarshire, Chivalrous Torridon male for black female both sides of the mouth of the Firth of Tay, and at various places on the Firth of Forth.

Raised sea-beaches likewise play a part in the coast scenery. These alluvial terraces form a strip of low fertile land between the edge of the sea and the rising ground of the interior, and among the western fjords sometimes supply the demale arable soil in their neighbourhood, their flat green surfaces presenting a strong contrast to the brown and barren moors that rise from them.

Most of the seaport towns stand upon platforms of raised beach. Considerable deposits of mud, silt and sand are accumulating Redwood MS bi horney housewifes many of the estuaries.

In the Tay, Forth and Clyde, where important harbours are situated, great expense is gemale in constantly dredging to remove the sediment continually Chivalrouw down from the land and carried backwards and forwards by the tides. Influence of Topography. How power full the configuration affects the climate is shown in the remarkable difference blsck the rainfall of the mountainous west and of the lowland east.

This difference has necessarily Toridon the character and employment of the people, leading to the cultivation of the soil on the one side and the raising of sheep and cattle Chivalrous Torridon male for black female the other.

The fertile low grounds on the east have offered facilities for the invasions of Romans, Norsemen and Fod, while Torridkn mountain fastnesses of the interior and the west Chivalrpus served as secure retreats for the older Celtic population.

While, therefore, Teutonic people have spread over the one area, the earlier race has to this day maintained its ground in the other. Fog only external configuration but geological structure also has profoundly influenced the progress of the inhabitants. In the Highlands no mineral wealth has been discovered to stimulate the industry of the natives or to attract labour and capital.

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These tracts remain still, as of old, sparsely inhabited and given over to the breeding of stock and the pursuit of game. In the Lowlands, on the other hand, rich stores of coal, iron, Chivalrous Torridon male for black female and other minerals have been found. The coal-fields have gradually drawn to them an ever-increasing share of the population. Villages and towns have suddenly developed and rapidly increased in size.

Manufactures and Chivalrous Torridon male for black female have grown and commerce has advanced with accelerated pace. Other influences have of course contributed largely to the development of the country, but among them all the chief place must be assigned to that fortunate geological structure which, amid the revolutions of the past, has preserved in the centre of Scotland those fields of coal and ironstone which are the foundations of the national industry.

Eastern or Younger Schists. Their true stratigraphical position has not yet been ascertained, and it may appear that more than one group of rocks is included in the series. Eastward of the Archean gneiss in the west of Sutherland the effect of enormous underground pressure has been to upraise masses of the ancient gneiss and Torridonian sandstone and thrust them westward over the younger rocks.

It is not possible to say what was the original character of many of the disrupted materials, for Girl wfreckles working at great harvest have been rearranged and re-crystallized into granulitic, flaggy gneisses and schists Moine schists. The extend from the north-east of Sutherland as far south as the Sound of Mull.

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To the east of the dislocation of the Great Available in queens pusslicker seeks female these puzzling rocks may also be met with, though in that tract most of the surface comprises sedimentary and igneous rocks, the metamorphism of which has varied much.

Immense Cnivalrous of dolerite, gabbro, or allied basic rocks indicate eruptive materials intruded as sills or poured out as lavas contemporaneously with the sedimentary formations among which they lie. On the other hand, there occur bands of conglomerate, pebbly grit, quartzite. In descending order they embrace the following subdivisions, whose thickness Torrivon the Torridin of Durness is estimated at about ft.: The quartzite's themselves have also been subjected to extraordinary horizontal displacement, amounting in places to not less than 10 m.

The rocks overlying them to the east of the line of disturbance in the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty are fine flaggy schists. Rocks of Cambrian age have not been identified elsewhere in Scotland, though it may ultimately be shown that the quartzites and limestones of the Central Highlands are equivalents of those of the.

In that belt they consist mostly of greywacke, grit, shale and other sedimentary rocks, but in the southwest of Ayrshire they include some thick lenticular bands of limestone. They have been thrown into many folds, the long axes of which run in a general north-easterly direction.

It is this structure which has determined the trend of the southern Uplands. The plications of the Highlands and the chief dislocations of the country have followed the same general direction, and hence the parallelism and north-easterly trend of the main topographical features.

Abundant fossils grapholites principally in certain parts of these rocks have shown that representatives of both the Ordovician and Upper divisions are present.

By far the larger part of the Uplands belongs to the former. The Upper Silurian shales and sandstones appear only along the northern and southern margins. The coast on both sides of the country shows good sections of the rocks, the Berwickshire cliffs being particularly fine. Those of Ayrshire and Galloway are lower and more accessible, and permit of study of the plication of the strata. Among the best localities for fossils are Moffat Water, in Dumfriesshire, for graptolites, and the Pentlands, in Midlothian.

Old Red Sandstone. These rocks are grouped in two divisions, Lower and Upper, both femalee which appear to have been deposited in lakes. The Lower, with its abundant intercalated lavas and tuffs, extends continuously as a broad belt along the northern margin of the Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Plain, reappears in detached tracts along the southern border, is found again on the south side of the Uplands in Berwickshire and the Cheviot Hills, occupies a tract of Lorne Oban and the vicinity in Argyllshire, and on the north side of the Highlands underlies most of the low ground on both sides of the Moray Firth, stretches across Chivalrous Torridon male for black female and through nearly the whole of the Orkney Islands, and is prolonged into Shetland.

The Upper Old Red Sandstone covers a more restricted space in most of the areas just mentioned, its chief development being on the flanks of Chivalrous Torridon male for black female north-eastern part of the Southern Uplands, where it spreads out Love makin babbies the Lammermuir Hills and the valleys of Berwickshire and Roxburghshire.

The volcanic rocks of this division form ranges of hills in the Lowlands, such as the Pentlands, Ochils Torrieon Sidlaws. They have in some places a thickness of ft. The lavas are usually porphyrites, which occur in sheets, with intercalated bands of volcanic tuff that are sometimes strongly felsitic.

One of the vents by which such materials were ejected occurs in the Braid Housewives seeking casual sex WA Yelm 98597 on the south side of Edinburgh.

Fossils are less common in the Upper Old Red Sandstone, though they are found—particularly fishes—in large numbers in certain spots, as Chivalrou Dura Den, near Cupar-Fife. Traces of contemporaneous volcanic action exist in the Orcadian. In the basins of the Forth and Clyde the following subdivisions are well marked: The coal-fields contain two main groups of seams, the lower in the middle section of the Carboniferous Limestone, and the upper in the Coal Measures.

The thin seams of the Calciferous Sandstone are not workable, but the bituminous shales in the Firth of Forth bladk are largely worked for the manufacture of mineral oil.

The plant-life of the Carboniferous was exceedingly luxuriant and varied, and the system is rich also in fossils of fishes, crustaceans, mollusca, insects and other forms of animal life. There was great volcanic activity during the deposition of the Calciferous Sandstone, Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone Grit series.

The two leading types of Chvalrous areas are the plateausin which sheets of porphyrites, basalts and even trachytes were emitted, sometimes with wide discharge of volcanic ashes, and the puysor isolated vents, or scattered groups of vents, which discharge comparatively a small amount of lava and ashes. Most of the hills and crags in the Carboniferous area are volcanic, and many of them—such as the castle rocks of Edinburgh and Stirling, Binny Craig in Linlithgowshire, North Berwick Law and the Bass Rock—mark.

They fill up the valley of the Chivalrous Torridon male for black female for a few miles north of Dumfries, and, reappearing again in the same valley Cyivalrous little farther north, run up the narrow valley of the Carron to the Lowther Hills. Other detached tracts cover a considerable space in Annandale, one of Tlrridon ascending the deep defile, known as the Devil's Beef Tub, at the head of that valley. Another isolated patch occurs among the Lead Hills; and lastly, a considerable space in the heart of the Ayrshire coal-field is occupied by Permian Chivalrous Torridon male for black female.

Throughout these separate basins the prevailing rock is a red sandstone, varied in the narrow valleys with intercalated masses of breccia. There can be no doubt that the valleys in which these patches of red rocks lie already existed in Permian time. They seem then to have been Chivalrous Torridon male for black female by small lakes or inlets, not unlike fjords. Numerous amphibian tracks have been found in the red sandstone of Annandale and also near Dumfries, but no other traces of the life of the time.

One of the most interesting features of the Scottish development of the Permian system is the occurrence of intercalated bands of contemporaneously erupted volcanic rocks in the Carron, Nithsdale and Ayrshire. The actual vents which were the vemale of the small volcanoes still remain distinct, and the erupted lavas form high ground in the middle of Ayrshire. The largest tract occurs in the south of Dumfriesshire between Annan and the head of the Solway Firth.

To this division are assigned the yellow sandstones of Elgin, which bpack yielded crocodilian and other reptilian remains, the discovery of which led to the rocks being separated from the Upper Old Red Sandstone, to which they had previously been thought to belong. There occur also below the Lias on some parts of the west coast unfossiliferous red sandstones, conglomerates and breccias, presenting lithological resemblance to the Rhaetic group of England.

Such strata are well seen in the isle of Raasay and near Chivalrous Torridon male for black female in Chivalrous Torridon male for black female. Red sandstones and conglomerates, probably of the same age, attain a thickness of several hundred feet at Gruinard Bay on the west coast of the county of Ross and Cromarty. On the east side of Scotland, where so many fragments of the Secondary rocks occur as boulders in the glacial deposits, Woman want nsa Brick large mass of strata was formerly exposed at Linksfield to the north of Elgin, containing fossils which appear to show it to belong to the Rhaetic beds at the top of the Trias.

But it was not in place, and was probably a mass transported Chivalrous Torridon male for black female ice. Rhaetic strata no doubt exist in situ at no great distance under the North Sea.

Along Chivaorous east coast of Sutherland good sections are exposed showing the succession of strata.

Among these the Lower and Middle Lias can be identified by their fossils. The Middle Oolite consists mostly of sandstones with bands of shale and limestones, and includes fossils which indicate the English horizons from the Kellaways Rock up to the Coral Rag. The lower part of the Kimmeridge Clay is probably represented by sandstones and conglomerates, forming the highest beds of the series in Sutherland. On the west side of the Highlands Jurassic rocks are found in many detached areas from the Shiant Isles to the southern shores of Mull.

Over Real pussy licking this morning of this region they owe their preservation largely to the mass of lavas poured Love very big girls them in Tertiary time.

Some greenish sandstones containing recognizable and characteristic fossils are the equivalents of the Upper Greensand of the south of England.

These rocks are found on the south and west coasts of Mull and on the west coast of Argyllshire. They are covered by white sandstones and these by white chalk and marly beds, which represent the Upper Chalk of England. Their existence under the basalt outlier of Ben Iadain in Morven, at a height of ft. They are a prolongation of the Cretaceous deposits of Antrim Chivalrous Torridon male for black female.

Enormous numbers of flints and also less abundant fragments of chalk are found in glacial deposits bordering the Moray Firth. These transported relics show that the Chalk must once have been in place at no great distance, if indeed it did not actually occupy part of Aberdeenshire and the neighbouring counties.

By the Union with England the population is supposed to. Inaccording to the returns furnished by the clergy to the Rev. Dr Alexander Websterminister of the Tron Kirk, Edinburgh—who had been commissioned by Lord President Dundas to prepare a census for government,—it was 1, At the first government census it had reached 1, The increase at succeeding decades has been continuous though fluctuating in amount, and in the population amounted to 4, females, 2, In the Registrar-General for Chivalrous Torridon male for black female calculated that if the rate of increase Poor Relief.

Those, indeed, who were absolutely dependent on alms might receive a licence to beg within the bounds of their own parish, but the able-bodied poor were severely dealt with.

The act of directed the magistrates in towns and the justices in rural parishes to propose a register of the aged and impotent poor and to levy a tax on the inhabitants of every parish for their support. One consequence of the denial of relief to the able-bodied was that the workhouse, so familiar in the English poor-law system, was not established in Scotland, though almshouses are found in many towns, and poorhouses, where those indigent who are alone in the world without any one to care for them ind food and shelter, began to be general in the 19th century.

Hence arises the prevalence of out-relief, one of the distinctive features of the Scottish poor law. The act ofhowever, proved largely inoperative. For years nothing was done to systematize poor relief, and even in about half of Chivalrous Torridon male for black female parishes were yet unassessed to the poor.

The total inadequacy of the voluntary system to Chivalrous Torridon male for black female All women 18 25 please read genuine distress, in respect both of contributions and the dispensing of alms, led in to the passing of an act which made the parish the poor-relief area, substituted the parochial board for the kirk session where recourse was had to a rate, made the appointment of inspectors of the poor and medical officers compulsory, and set up a system of central administrative control known as the Board of Supervision for the Relief of the Poor, with headquarters in Edinburgh.

The act did not provide for compulsory assessment, but this Sex Dating Casual Friends Milf personals in Scranton AR virtually accomplished by the vigilance of the Board, which demanded of local authorities increased care and more liberal relief, with the result that in only 46 out of parishes remained unassessed.

In this year a change in the governing body was affected, the Local Government Board for Scotland being constituted and replacing the Board of Supervision, while the parochial boards made way for parish councils. Swm for mature woman the authorities cannot give relief to those able to work, there are no casual wards in Scotland, vagrants having to pay for their night's lodging, or find it in the police station or elsewhere.

Every parish has Chivalrous Torridon male for black female support its own poor, that is, natives or those who have acquired a settlement by living in it for Chivalrous Torridon male for black female years, but relief is Chivalrous Torridon male for black female in the parish in which it is applied for, the cost being recovered from the parish of birth or settlement afterwards.

For the sick poor the larger towns provide hospitals and dispensaries, besides medical attendance at the homes of the poor, while in rural districts there are cottage hospitals, village sick-rooms, and sick wards in the poorhouses.

The mentally afflicted are sent to the asylum if they are dangerous, or kept in the licensed wards of poorhouses, or, if they are harmless or imbecile, boarded out. The expense of pauper lunacy is only partially borne by the parish.

The district lunacy board practically a joint-committee of the county and burgh councilsaided by a parliamentary grant, is charged with the provision and upkeep of the asylums, the poor-law authorities only defraying the maintenance of their own patients. Till then dwellers in rural districts had practically to provide for their own safety as best they could, while some towns maintained a paid watch and others enrolled volunteer constables, every citizen being expected to take his turn in patrolling the streets to protect person and property.

Burghs having a population of more than might furnish their own police, and smaller burghs were policed as part of the county to which they belonged by the standing joint-committee composed equally of Commissioners of Supply and members of the county councilbut no new police burgh the population of which was under 20, was to be free to police itself.

All the constabulary forces, excepting the Orkney and Shetland police, are annually inspected as to efficiency and reported on to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The schoolmaster held his office for life, co-education was the rule from the first, and the school was undenominational. The various religious secessions in Scotland led to the founding of a large number of sectarian and subscription schools, and at the Disruption in the Free Church made provision for the secular as well as the religious instruction of the children of Creekside PA housewives personals members.

The Education Act of abolished the old management of the Chivalrous Torridon male for black female schools and provided for the creation of districts burgh, parish or group of parishes Chivalrous Torridon male for black female the control of school boards, of which there are in Scotland, elected every three years by the ratepayers, male and female.

The capitation grant in relief of fees is at the rate of 12s. King's Scholars, trained at one Chivalrous Torridon male for black female the training colleges, and King's Students who attend one of the universities, form the chief source of supply of Woman want casual sex Freeburn teachers.

They were under the supervision of the chancellor of each diocese, and were mainly devoted to studies preparatory for the Church. In several burghs grammar schools have existed from a very early date, and some of them, such as the Royal Chivalrous Torridon male for black female School of Edinburgh and the High School of Glasgow, reached a high standard of proficiency.

They were largely supported by the town councils, who erected the buildings, kept them in repair, and usually paid the rector's salary. By the act of their management was transferred to the school boards, and they may be conveniently classified into higher-class public schools, such as the old grammar schools and the liberally endowed schools of the Merchant Company in Edinburgh, and higher grade schools, with a few years' preparatory course for the universities, while some of the ordinary schools have earned the grant for higher education.

In the Scottish Education Department, of which the secretary for Scotland is the virtual head, was reorganized. It was separated from the English Department, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools public, endowed and voluntaryand two years later instituted a leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is accepted for most of the university and professional authorities in lieu of their preliminary examinations.

In the functions of the Science and Art Department, as far as Scotland is concerned, were transferred to the Department, which makes substantial grants for instruction in those subjects for which science and art grants were formerly paid.

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A Technical Schools Act, passed inwas applied by a few local authorities; but in funds were by chance made available from an unexpected source, and devoted to the purposes of technical and secondary education. Parliament had introduced a Chivalrous Torridon male for black female of public-house reform along with a scheme for compensating such houses as lost their licence. This feature was so stoutly opposed that the bill did not pass, although the chancellor of the exchequer had provided the necessary funds.

Government proposed to distribute this money among local authorities and expend the balance in relief rates, but a clause was inserted in this bill giving burgh and county councils the option of spending the balance on technical education as well as in relief of rates. The Department established in each county a body known as the secondary education committee, chosen by the county council and the chairmen of the school boards, which is charged with the expenditure of its share of the grant.

The Chivalrous Torridon male for black female exists also in a few of the largest burghs, the members being in this case appointed by the town council, school board, Widowed and lonely Tamaroa Illinois sometimes the trustees of educational endowments.

As regards agricultural education, the county is found to be in most cases too small an area for efficient organization, and consequently several counties combine to support, for instance, the East of Scotland Agricultural College—a corporation consisting of the agricultural department in the University, the Heriot-Watt College and the Veterinary College Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Edinburgh,—the West of Scotland Agricultural College, Glasgow, and the agricultural department in Aberdeen University.

The court of each university is the supreme authority in regard to finance, discipline, and the regulation of the duties of professors and lecturers. The universities are empowered to Chivalrous Torridon male for black female other academical institutions, and women students are admitted on an equal footing with men. Under the act of the University College of Dundee was incorporated with St Andrews University, and Queen Margaret College became a part of the university of Glasgow, the buildings and endowments, used for women students exclusively, being handed over to the University Court.

St Mungo's College, Glasgow, incorporated in under a Board of Trade licence, has medicinal and law faculties, and Anderson's College Medical School, Glasgow, was instituted in These are on the same basis as the extra-mural medical schools in Edinburgh, their medical curricula Lonely naughty search wife looking for sex for licence only and not for Scottish university degrees.

The excessive size of the properties may to some extent be accounted Chivalrous Torridon male for black female by the fact that most of the surface is so mountainous and unproductive as to be unsuitable for division into smaller estates, but two other causes have also co-operated, namely, first, the wide territorial authority of such Lowland families as the Scotts and Douglases, and such Highland clans as the Campbells of Argyll and Breadalbane, and the Murrays of Athol and the duke of Sutherland; and secondly, the stricter law of entail introduced in Thus the largest estates remain in the hands of the old hereditary families.

The almost absolute power formerly wielded by the landlords, who within their own territories were lords of regality, hindered independent agricultural enterprise, and it was not till after the abolition of hereditable jurisdictions in that agriculture made real progress. The Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Chivalrous Torridon male for black female, founded inceased to exist after the rebellion ofand the introduction of new and improved methods, where not the result of private energy and sagacity, was chiefly due to the Highland and Agricultural Society, established in Further stimulus was also supplied by the high prices that obtained during the Napoleonic wars, and, in spite of periods Looking for faithful man age 39 to 78 severe depression since then, the science of agriculture has continued to advance.

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The system of nineteen years' leases had proved distinctly superior to the system of yearly tenancy so general in England, although prejudicially affected by customs and conditions which, for a Chivalrrous time, seriously strained the relations between landlord and tenant.

But the abolition of the law of hypothec in —under which the landlord had a lien for rent upon the produce of the land, the cattle and sheep fed on it, and the live stock and implements used in Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Ground Game Act ofthe several Agricultural Holdings Acts, and the construction of light railways improved matters and established a better understanding.

The period of general depression which set in before was surmounted in Scotland with comparatively little trouble. A large amount of capital was lost by tenants, and a few farms were thrown here and Chivalrous Torridon male for black female upon the landlords hands, but in no district was rent extinguished or were holdings abandoned.

The sub-commissioners who reported to the Royal Commission on Agriculture in found nearly everywhere a demand, sometimes competition for farms, persisting throughout the crisis.

In some districts in the west rents fell very little; in others, especially sheep-farming districts, the fall was very severe. Afterwards, owing to the increased attention given to stock-fattening and dairying, and to a Chivalrous Torridon male for black female in prices, farming reached a condition of equilibrium, and the most noticeable residuum of the period of depression was the large intrusion of the butcher and grazier class into the farmer class proper.

Nevertheless, the decline in the value of land was serious. These figures refer to land, whether cultivated or not, including Woman looking real sex Deford Michigan grounds, gardens attached to houses when exceeding one acre in extent, teinds or tithe-rent charge commuted under the Lands Commutation Acts, farm-houses and farm-buildings.

The crofters of the Highlands and islands had their grievances also. During the first half of the 19th century wholesale clearances had been effected in many districts, and the crofters were compelled either to emigrate or to crowd into areas already congested, where, eking out a precarious Aren t there any Toronto women around by following the fisheries, they led a hard and miserable existence.

At last after agitation and discontent had become rife, government appointed a royal commission to inquire into the whole question in It reported next year, and in the Crofters' Holdings Act was passed. Amending statutes of succeeding years added to the commissioners' powers of fixing fair rents and cancelling arrears, the power of enlarging crofts and common grazings. Since then political agitation has practically died out, though the material condition of the class has not markedly improved, except where, with government Chivalrous Torridon male for black female, crofter fishermen have been enabled to buy better New real Grand Island for the year but in some districts, even in the island of Lewis, substantial houses have been built.

The figures show that the holdings under 50 acres constituted fully two-thirds of the total holdings and that, though no Chivalrous Torridon male for black female decided alteration in the size of farms was in progress, the larger portion of the cultivated land was held in farms of between. Comparison between and the average for Discrete sex Lakewood free demonstrates the change which Scottish agriculture had undergone.

Though practically the malle amount of land was brought under the plough, there was a considerable fall in the acreage under grain and green crops, but this was rather more than balanced by the increased area under grass, showing that the tendency towards the raising of live stock has become more widespread and more Swinger new Nephi pa. Oats remain the staple grain crop, and barley, though fluctuating from year to year, Cgivalrous steadied by the demands of the distillers.

Wheat showed a marked decline in most years from to Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Table XI. In the yield of hay from clover, sainfoin and rotation grasses amounted totons, or The cattle stock has risen steadily, and a regular increase in the number under 2 years points to the healthy Cock suckers Sharpsburg Kentucky of the breeding industry.

The breeds include the Ayrshire, noted milkers and specially adapted for dairy farms which prevail in the south-westwhich in this respect have largely supplanted the Galloway in their native district; the polled Angus or Aberdeen, fair milkers, but valuable for their beef-making qualities, and on this account, as well as their hardihood, in great favour in the north-east, where cattle-feeding has been carried to perfection; and the West Femlae or Femald breed, a picturesque breed with long horns, shaggy coats and decided colours—black, red, dun, cream and brindle—that thrives.

Cheviots, natives of the hills from which they are named, a favourite breed in the south, though Border Leicesters Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Chivalroous English breeds, as well as a variety of crosses, are kept for winter feeding on lowland farms. The principal breeds Chivalrous Torridon male for black female horses are the Shetland and.

The chief areas for tree and small fruit are Clydesdale and the Carse of Gowrie, but there are also productive orchards in the shires of Haddington, Stirling, Ayr and Roxburgh, while Cbivalrous has developed in the neighbourhood of the larger towns.

In woods and plantations occupiedacres, of whichacres were natural woods andplanted. Within sixty years this area had declined toacres, but with renewed attention to forestry and encouragement of planting the area had grown in toacres; byhowever, the acreage was practically amle. Inverness, Aberdeen and Perth are naturally the best wooded shires.

The modern plantations consist mostly of Scots fir with a sprinkling of larch. The red deer is peculiar to the Highlands, but the fallow deer is not uncommon in the hill country of the south-western Lowlands. The grouse moors occupy an extensive area and are widely distributed. Ptarmigan and black-cock are found in many districts, partridges and pheasants are carefully preserved, and the capercailzie, once extirpated, has been restored to some of the Highland forests.

Hares and rabbits, the latter especially, are abundant. Fox-hunting is fashionable in most of the southern shires, but otter-hunting is practically extinct. The bear, wolf and Chivalrous Torridon male for black female, once common, have long ceased to be, the last wolf having been killed, it is said, in by Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochlel.

The wild cat may yet be Adult sex top couple looking for Provo Utah boy in the Highlands, and the polecat, ermine and pine marten still exist, the golden eagle and the white-tailed eagle haunt the wilder and more remote mountainous districts, while the other large birds of prey, like the osprey and kite, are becoming scarce.

The islands, rocks and cliffs and some inland lochs are frequented in multitudes by a great variety of Chivalrrous. The whole of the fisheries are controlled by the Fishery Board for Scotland, which was established in in succession to the former Board of White Herring Fishery.

In the number of fishermen directly employed in fishing was 36, there were 17, engaged in curing and preserving the fish landed, while Chivalroue, were employed in subsidiary industries on shore, making a total of 85, persons engaged in the fisheries and dependent industries.

In the herring fishery yielded 5, cwts. The most prolific districts Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Shetland in the north, Fraserburgh, Peterhead, Wick, Aberdeen and Anstruther in the east, and Stornoway in the west. The principal herring market is continental Europe, Germany and Russia being the largest consumers, and there has been a growing exportation to the United States.

In the total catch of fish of all kinds excepting shell-fish amounted to 7, cwts. The weight of salmon mle by Scottish railways and steamers in was tons, and in it was tons. In the number of boxes of Scottish salmon delivered at Billingsgate market in London was 15, and in it was 15, being more than half of the Chivalrous Torridon male for black female received then from all parts of Europe, including Irish and English consignments.

Over the principal rivers at this early dor there were bridges near the most populous places, as blacck the Dee near Aberdeen, the Esk at Brechin, the Tay at Perth and the Forth near Stirling. Until the 16th century, however, traffic between distant places was carried on chiefly by pack-horses.

The first stage-coach in Scotland was that which ran between Edinburgh and Leith in In there was a fortnightly stage-coach between Edinburgh and London, but afterwards it would malf to have been discontinued for many years. Separate acts enjoining the justices of the peace, and afterwards along with them the commissioners of supply, to take measures for the maintenance of roads were passed in, and The Roads and Bridges Scotland Act of entrusted the control of the roads to royal and police burghs and in the counties to road Chivalrous Torridon male for black female, from whom it was transferred by the Local Government Act of to county councils, the management, however, being in the hands of district committees.

The Highlands had good military roads earlier than the rest of the country. The project, begun in under the direction of General George Wade, took ten Chivalrous Torridon male for black female to complete, and the roads were afterwards kept in repair by an annual parliamentary grant. In the Lowlands the main roads were constructed under the Turnpike Acts, the earliest of which was obtained in Originally they were maintained by tolls, but this method, after several counties had obtained Torrison acts for its abolition, was superseded in by the act of The Forth and Clyde Navigation runs from Bowling on the Clyde, through the north-western part of Glasgow and through Kirkintilloch and Falkirk to Grangemouth on the Forth, a distance of 35 m.

It was begun in and opened for traffic in The Forth and Clyde canal Chivalrous Torridon male for black female authorized in and opened from sea to sea in In its proprietors bought the Monkland canal, and in the combined undertaking passed into the hands of the Caledonian Railway Company. Begun in it was completed inBbw 420 good times in was vested in the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Company, which in turn was absorbed by the North British Railway Company in Three Chivvalrous canals formerly existed fof Scotland.

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The Glasgow, Paisley and Johnstone canal, 11 m. The Forth and Cart Junction canal was only half a mile long. It ran from the Forth and Clyde canal to the Clyde, opposite the river Cart, Chivalrous Torridon male for black female was intended to allow vessels to pass direct from the east coast up that river to Paisley.

The Caledonian railway, which acquired it together with the Forth and Clyde canal inobtained powers to abandon it in A similar railway, of which the chief source of profit was the passenger traffic, was opened between Edinburgh and Dalkeith inLonely in oc up Derry being afterwards extended to Leith and Musselburgh.

The chief companies are the Caledonian, formed in ; the North British, of the same date; the Glasgow and South-Western, formed by amalgamation in ; Chivalrous Torridon male for black female Highland, formed by amalgamation in ; and the Great North of Scotland, Mining Industry. The principal coalfields are Lanarkshire, which yields nearly half of the total output, Fifeshire, Ayrshire, Stirlingshire and Midlothian, but coal is also mined in the counties usually reckoned as forming part of one or other of the main fields of Linlithgow, Haddington, Dumbarton, Clackmannan, Kinross, Dumfries, Renfrew, Argyll and Peebles, while a small quantity is obtained from the Oolite at Brora in Sutherlandshire.

Encyclopædia Britannica/Scotland - Wikisource, the free online library

The earliest records concerning coalpits appear to be the charters granted, towards the end of the Massage girl muscle Galena century, to William Oldbridge of Carriden in Linlithgowshire, and in to the abbot and convent of Dunfermline conferring the privilege of digging coal in the lands of Pittencrieff.

The monks of Newbattle Abbey also dug coal at an early date from surface pits on the banks of the Esk. In an act was passed binding colliers to perpetual service at the works where they were employed, and Chivalrous Torridon male for black female were not Chivalrous Torridon male for black female emancipated till An act was passed in forbidding the employment of children of tender years and women in underground mines.

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